Ultrasonography uses high-frequency sound (ultrasound) waves to create pictures of internal organs and other tissues. A device called a transducer converts electric current into sound waves, which can be transmitted to the body’s cells. Sound waves bounce off structures within the human body and are reflected back into the transducer, which transforms the waves into electric signals. A computer transforms the design of electric signals into a picture, which can be displayed on a screen and recorded as a digital computer picture. No x-rays are utilized, thus there’s absolutely no radiation exposure through ultrasonography.

If certain components of the gut are being analyzed, individuals can be asked to refrain from eating and drinking for many hours prior to the test. For the evaluation of female reproductive organs, most girls might be asked to consume a great deal of fluid to fulfill their bladder.

Normally, the examiner puts thick gel onto the skin over the area to be analyzed to make the sure decent sound transmission. A handheld transducer is placed on the skin and proceeded across the region to be assessed.

To assess somebody’s components, the examiner inserts the transducer to your system –for instance, in the vagina into the better picture the uterus and ovaries or to the anus to picture the thyroid gland.

The examiner occasionally joins the transducer into a viewing tube called an endoscope and moves it to the body. This process is known as endoscopic ultrasonography. The endoscope can be passed down the throat to observe the heart (transesophageal echocardiography) or via the gut to observe the liver and other organs that are nearby.

Ultrasonography Is Often Utilised to evaluate the following:

  • Heart: For example, to detect abnormalities in the way the heart beats, structural abnormalities like faulty heart valves, and abnormal enlargement of the heart chambers or walls (ultrasonography of the center is known as echocardiography)
  • Blood vessels: For Instance, to detect dilated and blood vessels
  • Gallbladder and biliary tract: For Instance, to detect Infection and blockages in the bile ducts
  • Liver, spleen, and pancreas: For example, to detect tumors and other ailments
  • Urinary tract: For Instance, to differentiate benign cysts from solid masses (which can be cancer) from the uterus or to discover blockages like rocks or other structural abnormalities in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder
  • Female reproductive organs: For Instance, to detect inflammation and tumors at the uterus, fallopian tubes, or uterus
  • Pregnancy: For example, to Assess the growth and development of the fetus and also to detect abnormalities of the placenta (like a lost placenta, known as placenta previa)

Ultrasound information could be displayed in many ways:

  • A-mode: Just as spikes on a chart (used to scan the eye)
  • B-mode: As 2-dimensional anatomic images (used during pregnancy to evaluate the growing fetus or to assess internal organs)
  • M-mode: As waves exhibited always to show moving structures (used to evaluate the fetus’s heartbeat or to assess heart disease disorders)

B-mode ultrasonography is most frequently done.

Doppler ultrasonography utilizes changes that exist in the frequency of sound waves when they are represented from a moving object (known as the Doppler effect). In medical imaging, the moving items are red blood cells from the blood. Therefore, Doppler ultrasonography may be utilized to appraise

  • How quickly it flows
  • Which way it flows in

Doppler ultrasonography is utilized

  • To assess how well the heart is working (as part of echocardiography)
  • To discover blocked blood vessels, particularly in leg veins, like in deep vein thrombosis, when veins are blocked by a blood clot
  • To discover narrowed arteries, particularly the carotid arteries in the neck, which take blood into the brain

Spectral Doppler ultrasonography
This process shows blood circulation information for a chart. It may be used to evaluate how much a blood vessel is blocked.

Duplex Doppler ultrasonography
This process combines spectral and B-mode ultrasonography.

Color Doppler ultrasonography
With this particular test, color is superimposed on the shades-of-gray picture of blood flow created by Doppler ultrasonography. The color indicates the direction of circulation. Red might be utilized to indicate flow toward the transducerblue might be used to indicate flow away from the transducer. The brightness of the color indicates how quickly the blood is flowing.

Color Doppler ultrasonography will help evaluate the risk of stroke as it helps physicians identify and rate narrowing or blockage of blood vessels in the neck and head. The process is useful for assessing people who have experienced a transient ischemic attack or stroke along with individuals who have risk factors for atherosclerosis however no indicators. Color Doppler ultrasonography can also be utilized to evaluate blood flow to internal glands and organs.

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